رابطه زیبایی شناسی تصویر با آگاهی زیست محیطی از منظر نظریه پردازان اکوسینما

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 هیات علمی

چکیده

از ابتدای هزاره سوم که «اکوسینما» به عنوان یک گرایش مطالعاتی سینمایی مطرح شد تا به امروز دامنه‌ی گسترده‌ای از مباحث مربوط به رابطه‌ی بین سینما و محیط زیست از تاثیرات سینما به عنوان صنعت بر محیط زیست‌ تا تاثیرات اجتماعی و ادراکی سینما بر آگاهی زیست-محیطی مخاطبان را درون خویش جای داده است. در همین راستا، هدف مقاله حاضر، بررسی رابطه زیبایی‌شناسی تصویر سینمایی با آگاهی زیست محیطی است. مقاله با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی و انتقادی به بررسی دیدگاه‌های مکتوب صاحب‌نظران این حوزه می‌پردازد. نتایج مقاله نشان می‌دهد در حالیکه گروهی از منتقدین با تاکید بر قابلیت عامه‌فهمی سینمای تجاری، بارگذاری صریح پیام زیست‌محیطی مطابق با الگوهای رایج فیلم‌سازی را در افزایش آگاهی زیست‌محیطی توصیه می‌کنند، عده‌ای دیگر سینمای آوانگارد، تجربی و مستقل را محمل مناسبی برای پرداخت جدی به دغدغه‌های زیست‌محیطی می‌دانند. همچنین بررسی انتقادی آرای دو گروه نشان می‌دهد نبود مبانی نظری متقن در بررسی‌ رابطه‌ی زیبایی‌شناسی و ادراک زیست‌محیطی یکی از مشکلاتی است که غالب نظریه‌ها با آن مواجه‌اند. به لحاظ روش‌شناسی نیز در بسیاری از تحلیل‌ها به آثار سینمایی به عنوان متون اصلی تحلیل توجه جدی نمی‌شود. به همین‌گونه جای خالی پژوهش‌های میدانی در تحلیل-هایی که بر رفتار و ادراک مخاطبان استوارند به چشم می‌خورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between Aesthetics of Image and Ecological Awareness among Theorists of Ecocinema

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vahid Shamshirian 1
  • reza afhami 2
  • ali sheikhmehdi 3
1 Ph. D. Scholar in Art studies, Faculty of Art & Architecture, Tarbiat Modares Univsersity
2 Associate professor, Tarbiat Modares university
3 member of faculty
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, the concept of sustainable development is progressively considered in all contemporary activities, including art and has been featured in the cinema since2004 with introduction of the term "Ecocinema" as a field of study. Earlier, film criticism and analysis of the ecological issues was limited to the scattered studies of critics such as Wilson, Armstrong, Seibert, Mitman, and Bousé with the focus on wildlife documentaries. But from this year, and within a short time, all kinds of cinematic genres, from fictional to documentary and experimental films have attracted the attention of critics. Similarly, many researchers from the humanities and social sciences have focused on ecological issues in cinema studies. As we see nowadays the expansion of ecofeminist studies, representation of gender, ethnic, racial issues, along with local and global action within the context of environmental and biological justice and ecosystems.
Besides considering the effects of cinema as an industry on the environment, part of these subjects is about the social and cognitive effects of cinema in promotion of ecological awareness.
In this regard, the aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between aesthetics of cinematic image and environmental awareness of the audience. For this purpose, the relationship between sustainable development and aesthetics is explained first, and then, an attempt is made to classify different ecosystems from a thematic and a range of studies so that later on, the relation between image aesthetics and ecological awareness can be compared. Therefore, the following are clearly divided into two general categories by the experts, and finally a critical analysis of their views. This paper addresses the written views of the experts in this field by using descriptive-analytical and critical approaches.
The results of the paper indicate that while all critics agree on the central idea that cinema is capable of portraying environmental issues and A closer analysis of films from an ecological perspective can reveal fascinating perspectives on the relationship of cinema with the world around us, but in terms of the relationship between aesthetics and ecological awareness, there are profound theoretical and intellectual differences that go back to how ecological issues are represented.
While some experts such as Mitman, Brereton and Ingram believe in explicitly loading of the ecological message into films based on common patterns and forms of filmmaking,
Bousé, McDonald, Vivanco, and Ladino find commercial cinema lacking the power to influence environmental awareness and the avant-garde empirical cinema, which uses different aesthetic forms than commercial cinema to express its subject matter, is the perfect vehicle for projecting ecological issues.
Also, the critical examination of the two groups' views reflects three serious challenges in their analysis: 1) In many analyses, the relationship between aesthetics and environmental perception is not based on a theoretical basis, 2) In many works, serious attention is not paid to the main texts of research which are films in this case, 3) In many of these works that emphasize on audience behavior analysis, field research does not perform.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecocinema
  • Aesthetics of cinematic image
  • Ecological Awareness
  • anthropomorphism
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