عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, the concept of sustainable development is progressively considered in all contemporary activities, including art and has been featured in the cinema since2004 with introduction of the term "Ecocinema" as a field of study. Earlier, film criticism and analysis of the ecological issues was limited to the scattered studies of critics such as Wilson, Armstrong, Seibert, Mitman, and Bousé with the focus on wildlife documentaries. But from this year, and within a short time, all kinds of cinematic genres, from fictional to documentary and experimental films have attracted the attention of critics. Similarly, many researchers from the humanities and social sciences have focused on ecological issues in cinema studies. As we see nowadays the expansion of ecofeminist studies, representation of gender, ethnic, racial issues, along with local and global action within the context of environmental and biological justice and ecosystems.
Besides considering the effects of cinema as an industry on the environment, part of these subjects is about the social and cognitive effects of cinema in promotion of ecological awareness.
In this regard, the aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between aesthetics of cinematic image and environmental awareness of the audience. For this purpose, the relationship between sustainable development and aesthetics is explained first, and then, an attempt is made to classify different ecosystems from a thematic and a range of studies so that later on, the relation between image aesthetics and ecological awareness can be compared. Therefore, the following are clearly divided into two general categories by the experts, and finally a critical analysis of their views. This paper addresses the written views of the experts in this field by using descriptive-analytical and critical approaches.
The results of the paper indicate that while all critics agree on the central idea that cinema is capable of portraying environmental issues and A closer analysis of films from an ecological perspective can reveal fascinating perspectives on the relationship of cinema with the world around us, but in terms of the relationship between aesthetics and ecological awareness, there are profound theoretical and intellectual differences that go back to how ecological issues are represented.
While some experts such as Mitman, Brereton and Ingram believe in explicitly loading of the ecological message into films based on common patterns and forms of filmmaking,
Bousé, McDonald, Vivanco, and Ladino find commercial cinema lacking the power to influence environmental awareness and the avant-garde empirical cinema, which uses different aesthetic forms than commercial cinema to express its subject matter, is the perfect vehicle for projecting ecological issues.
Also, the critical examination of the two groups' views reflects three serious challenges in their analysis: 1) In many analyses, the relationship between aesthetics and environmental perception is not based on a theoretical basis, 2) In many works, serious attention is not paid to the main texts of research which are films in this case, 3) In many of these works that emphasize on audience behavior analysis, field research does not perform.