عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Guilan's karna and its multiple functions in the rituals on the east of Guilan. Guilan's karna is associated with a set of mental, theological, and historical actions. In this study, using an intertextual discourse, it was attempted to analyze these actions with a new reading. Therefore, it was attempted to identify, categorize, and analyze the multi-layered functions and concepts of this musical instrument. According to the findings of the present study, four general functions were identified for karna: 1- the socio-religious function, 2- the symbolic function, 3- the expressive function, and 4- the acoustic function. In addition to the acoustic function of karna as a 'messenger', other functions have always guaranteed its life and survival. As for the socio-religious function, it is not a mere musical instrument, but rather, it contains theological elements, including participation in religious associations, the continuation of a religious tradition, and fulfillment of people's vows. These aspects create an extramusical functional identity for karna. The next functional aspect of karna is its expressive or 'speech' function. Karna can produce only two or three tones and lacks a special tones order in terms of melodic motion; however, in terms of rhythm, specific rhythmic figures are usually played by the musicians. Although for the cross-cultural audience, these rhythmic figures with high dynamics have no specific meaning except reference to the historical realities and a sound effect, for the players of karna, each rhythmic figure is equivalent to a certain verse of a well-known poem recited during mourning ceremonies. The rhythmic figures are important and symbolic, and the players know what rhythmic figure should be played in front of each mosque or graveyard depending on the time. For example on Tasu'a or Ashura, rhythmic figures that are equivalent to certain verses of a well-known poem are performed. These codes are unknown to the general audience. In addition, the symbolic functions of karna can be studied through semiotics and symbolism. Among its symbolic functions are concepts like bravery, power, majesty, and delivery of a message to immortal and heavenly places, and spatial symbols such as the direction of playing the instrument, and temporal symbols related to Muharram rituals. These multiple functions show how a musical instrument has survived while retaining its functional metaphors, and has guaranteed its survival by adapting to new performance conditions. Guilan's karna is the prime example of an object that has substituted its role as the messenger of a terrestrial event (the war) with the messenger of a sacred event (used in the religious background), and has managed to survive after a metamorphosis. In its two distinct lifetimes (from a martial instrument to a sacred one), the musical aspect of karna has always been affected by its symbolic and social functions. From an intercultural perspective, karna is not regarded as a mere wind instrument in a classified organological system, but rather, it is an identity element that could deliver a message with semantic, verbal, and social loads. Data were collected using field and library studies.