عنوان مقاله [English]
Throughout history, the art of musical performance has continuously posed a critical challenge to musicologists. How do musicians create an expressive performance? Are there given and conscious set of rules that govern musical expression or is interpretation an intuitive act where it is neither learnable nor capable of being instructed. This article reflects on the art of interpretation as one of the most fundamental pillars of musical performance and explores inherent musical elements which shape musical expression. While making an effort in instigating the need for a deeper and more sophisticated approach to the performance of instrumental repertoire,, the article introduces a model for a deliberate and determined process of interpretation in which three fundamental layers are recommended in order to define musical parameters that enhance expression. The three layers, namely the Structural layer, the Aesthetic layer and Musical motion and dynamism are each separately discussed and the parameters underlying each layer are categorized. Although all examples are cited from the flute repertoire, the article's treatment of the examples is transparent and clear-cut and suitable to appeal to all instrumentalists. While providing a pragmatic approach toward simple guidelines for the art of interpretation, the model helps to enhance cognitive capabilities and analytical insights in performers and provides them with a strong basis for aesthetic and artistic judgments which could be used while learning and performing musical works. Within the classifications made under each layer; the Structural layer clarifies the relationships embedded in the phrase structure and highlights the importance of a hierarchical organization of the motivic and melodic divisions in the phrase and calls it the most critical structural consideration in the path to appropriate expression. In the Aesthetic layer, knowledge of historically informed performance and stylistic approach to the music of each period has encouraged the author to highlight and elaborate those elements of performance practice that help performers make aesthetic judgments and cultivate elements intrinsic in the musical style of each epoch. Consequently, aesthetic elements that lead performers to better understand the structural differences in the music of each period are explained in an attempt to clarify ambiguities in performance practice and to encourage the practical application of highlighted elements while performing on modern instruments. In the final but most important layer called Musical motion and dynamism the article has identified elements that present themselves as the source of motion in music. Motivic pulse, melodic inflection, accentuation, and gradations in sound are categorized as the elements that shape melodic motion and dynamism. While emphasizing the critical role played by this layer, the article posits the important position assumed by musical pulse versus meter and tempo and underlies the importance of grouping structures in the formation of musical tension and release and melodic span and closure.
In conclusion, the article encourages performers to consider the vital position of the body in the dissemination and management of the flow of energy through musical performance and postulates that musical expression is the sole outcome of embodied performance.