اقناعِ سخنورانه در موسیقی یوهان سباستین باخ، با نگاهی بر پرلود سوییت شماره‌ی 3 ویُلن‌سِل در دو ماژور BWV 1009

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

هیت علمی دانشگاه هنر

چکیده

مقایسه‌ی موسیقی با زبان از دیر باز امری معمول بوده ‌است. در دوران رنسانس و با رشد انسان‌گرایی، موسیقی نه ‌تنها به صورت دانشی ریاضی بلکه به عنوان علمی در ارتباط با کلام و انتقال مفاهیم و معانی نیز مورد توجه قرار گرفت. این مهم عاملی شد تا در گذر زمان، پیوند عمیقی بین موسیقی و فنِ سخنوری (رتوریک) ایجاد شود. در این میان آهنگسازان آلمانی، جهت استفاده از قدرت اقناعیِ نهفته در فن رتوریک؛ اصول ساختاری، فیگورها و تزئینات رتوریکی را در فرآیند آفرینش یک اثر موسیقی به کار بستند. یوهان سباستین باخ نیز به پیروی از سنت آهنگسازی موسیقی بارُک براساس اصول و قواعد رتوریک آثار فراوانی به رشته‌ی تحریر درآورد. بنابراین، برای دست یافتن به فهم و تفسیری عمیق از موسیقی وی، نمی‌توان شناسایی جنبه‌های رتوریکی بکار رفته در آثار او را نادیده‌ گرفت. مطالعه‌ی توصیفی- تحلیلی حاضر پس از بررسی تاریخی و تبیین ارتباط موسیقی با رتوریک، کاربرد اصول رتوریک در موسیقی را شرح ‌می‌دهد. سپس به بررسی پرلودِ دو ماژور BWV 1009، از منظر اصول رتوریک پرداخته و نشان ‌می‌دهد که باخ چگونه با به‌ خدمت گرفتن عناصر موسیقی مانند سکوت، فواصل، هارمونی و 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rhetorical Persuasion in the Music of J.S. Bach: A Case Study of the Prelude from Cello Suite No.3 in C-major BWV 1009

نویسنده [English]

  • Iman Fakhr
Instructor professor
چکیده [English]

The analogy between music and language was common from antiquity. During the Renaissance and the growth of humanism, renewed interest in linguistic disciplines was to have profound effect on virtually all aspects of academic and artistic endeavors throughout Europe. During this time, music was considered not only as a numerical or speculative science but also as a linguistic one; Music was the means of exegetic expressing, transmitting the concepts of the text. This view shaped the deep connection between music and rhetoric and this interrelationship evolved over the Baroque period. The increased significance of language and linguistic disciplines resulted in a growing influence of rhetorical concepts on musical thought. Therefore, musicians tended to exploit the persuasive power of rhetoric to use in the musical compositions. The German baroque composers seeking to emphasize the orderly and eloquent construction of pieces, used rhetorical structure and musical-rhetorical figures in musical contexts. Johann Sebastian Bach, under the influence of the compositional German baroque tradition, wrote various compositions based on rhetorical principles of the baroque music. Hence, in order to achieve a deep understanding of the music of J. S. Bach, identification of the rhetorical aspects used in his works cannot be ignored in the interpretative process. The present study, first explains the historical interrelationship between music and rhetoric, then with a glimpse of the structural principles of rhetoric in oratory, delineates the application of these rules in the creation of a musical composition and then describes Mattheson’s rhetorical model of musical creation in a comparative manner. Finally, this study investigates the rhetorical structure and musical-rhetorical figures in the Prelude from cello suite no.3 in C major BWV 1009; the Prelude was analyzed based on Mattheson’s rhetorical model of composition. This model divides the process of musical creation into five stages based on rhetorical canons: inventio, dispositio, elaboratio, decoratio, and executio. The rhetorical analysis of the prelude showed that a flawless rhetorical structure was designed in the stage of dispositio, which contains six-part divisions: exordium, narratio, propositio, confirmatio, confutatio, and peroratio. The exordium was found in mm.1-2; the narratio was set in mm. 2-7; the propositio was expanded in mm. 7-45; the confirmatio was occurred in mm. 45- 71 with the subdivision part of the digressio in mm. 61-71; the confutatio was settled in mm. 71-82; finally, the peroratio was founded in mm. 82-88. In addition, some musical-rhetorical figures were identified in this Prelude. For instance, J. S. Bach used the tirata perfecta figure in both exordium and peroratio sections and applied the abruptio figure in the confutatio section. These figures were used in order to arouse affections in the listener and to represent particular concepts based of the Baroque musica poetica tradition. This descriptive-analytic study shows how J. S. Bach used musical elements, such as rhythm, silence, intervals, harmony, etc. and the rhetorical modes of persuasion (ethos, logos, and pathos) appropriately in a perfect rhetorical structure, attempting to affect the listeners and to gain their persuasion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bach
  • Rhetoric
  • Musical elements
  • Interpretation
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