نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 سینما و انیمیشن، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
2 هیات علمی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, the German philosopher (1770-1831) in his book: Phenomenology of the Spirit, (1807) devotes a section to the dialectics and the “master “and “slave” which explores the power struggle between two individuals in the smallest unit of human accumulation in the history of spiritual evolution. Hegel has influenced the formation of the ideas of Jacques Lacan, a new follower of Sigmund Freud in psychoanalysis. Lacan introduced the notion of desire of a subject with an object and identification of concepts in regards to the “master” and “servant,” according with a combined view with Hegel. In other words, desire for confirmation that he/she should do with the same manner. Although that confirmation can be implemented only by a living creature, a power struggle starts between two people. This battle must continue close to death because the individual can prove that he/she is truly human if only they endanger their lives for confirmation, but this battle should end near one of the opponent's death since the confirmation can only be done by a living creature. The battle ends when one of the opponents walks away from the desire for confirmation, surrenders to the other, and confirms the conqueror as his/her "master" and becomes his/her "slave". The dialectic of “master” and “slave” are related to psychoanalysis by Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, and other psychoanalysts. Thus, the relationship between man and woman are the relationship between “master” and “slave”. Therefore, the research issued in this paper analyzes the dialectical relations between the couples (male/female) in Asghar Farhadi's Le Passe (2013) movie, which is produced in France. This article through psychoanalytic signs has implied in characters' action and speech and with a reference to other psychoanalytic schools. Data gathering method in this research is based on observation of the film, in which its content is analyzed through using the interpretative method and psychoanalytical approach. Accordingly, the dialectic of power exists in every two-way relationship, including the relationship between man and woman. This research has, through interpretive-analytical research, examined the dialectical relationships between couples in Asghar Farhadi's other films, as an example of studies of middle-class multinational community. The results show that the position of male and female characters in the two “master” positions or “slave” in the previous film depends on the social status of individuals and the effect of migration on their position in this dialectic. This article opens a different path to Farhadi's films. The result of this research conveys that the position of male and female characters within the category of “master” and “slave” in this film is related to people's social status, and immigration has an enormous effect on people's position in dialectics. This research is conducted based on the relationships between the alleged film's characters as a reflection of real individuals in society and as an analysis of power relations between the individuals in European society.