نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
گروه موسیقی، دانشکدۀ هنر و معماری، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Iranian music consists of two main ethnic and dastgahi music types. One issue in Iranian musicology is studying the relationship of these two music types. Literature concerning Iranian musicology emphasizes the content effect of these two on each other. It is also believed that there is a relationship between these two music types. One illustration of this is the relationship between Bayat-e-Kurd song in dastgahi music of Iran and music of Kurd ethnicity. Musicians in dastgahi music emphasize the relationship of it with ethnic Kurdistan music, believing that the most significant adoption of dastgahi music from Kurdistan music has manifested itself in the framework of Bayat-e-Kurd song. While, from within the culture of Kurdistan music, talks of denying such relationship from musicians and players are heard. Neither confirmers nor deniers of the relationship of Bayat-e-Kurd and ethnic Kurdistan music have not offered convincing evidences for their claims. The status of Bayat-e-Kurd in dastgahi music forum is not clear in a way that some identify it as a music mode and a “corner” in Shoor Dastgah. While, some suggest Bayat-e-Kurd as an independent song and a multimodal set like Afshari and Bayat-e-Tork. Studying contrast and complexity of fundamental layers of these two music types is a central research theme in Iranian musicology. Also, identifying structural similarity of them is one dimension of the relationship of ethnic and national culture, making the way for recognizing the roots of Iranian culture and identity. This study examines the reasons for the relationship of Bayat-e-Kurd and Kurdistan music. It also identifies the existence of a family relationship and structural similarity of modals in Bayat-e-Kurd and Kurdistan music, relying on the adoptive study of Bayat-e-Kurd and a type of Kurdistan music, named Xordeband-e-Bahâre. The more the study penetrates from the more objective and concrete melodic layers to the mental and abstract foundations of modal structure, the more common roots of ethnic and formal Iranian music will manifest. After identifying general features of bahâre in Kurdistan culture, first basic features of bahâre modal is analyzed based on two narrations from two indigenous credible narrators named Mohammad Bitan and Abdolah Golnaz under the influence of modal analysis method introduced by Master Dariush Talaei. Then, Bahare and Bayat-e-kord are compared using related measures based on three axis of acoustic module and distances of degrees, role and function of degrees and behavioral patterns of songs turn and melody trend and their similarities and differences are identified. Adoptive study shows that Bahare and Bayat-e-Kurd have common fundamental and structural features. Acoustic module of both includes two integrated tetra chords with distances of” three-fourth tone, three-fourth tone, whole tone” and “whole tone, semi tone, whole tone”. One leading tone and two types of stops- temporary and final- play a role in their modal relations and these functional notes have the same name in both. Also, developing gravity and the role of mentioned degrees follow the same three patterns of songs´ turn and melody trend. Commonality in these features show fundamental, structural, and structural relationship of these two music types.