نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
مربی گروه موسیقی، دانشکدهی هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا
عنوان مقاله [English]
“Multiphonic” is an expression, defining “many sounds” rather than a “chord”. Multiphonic pitches are different from one another in degrees of sound intensity; from the most obvious and distinguishable pitch to ones that are barely audible. Multiphonic has come to be recognized as an extended technique since the 20th century for monophonic instruments. Unlike their natural behavior in which monophonic instruments can only produce a single note at any time, multiphonics allow multiple sounds to simultaneously be produced using this extended technique. Oboe multiphonics can be traced back to the fundamental acoustics of the instrument. Since the Oboe is a cone-shaped instrument, it has complex and irregular diagrams of resonances which leads to dissonant and unstable multiphonics. Finding precise fingerings - ones which can be applied and practiced on a wide variety of instruments- is a great challenge. On the other hand, multiphonics in conical instruments which are produced through a reed are not predictable. Recent scientific findings have shown instability in behavior of double reeds. Additionally, a significant interaction is present between the double reed, bore-shape, key-work, and design of holes in more complicated conical instruments such as the oboe. A succession of several and various multiphonics can be difficult and inconvenient to read and comprehend using familiar and conventional music notation systems. In the Oboe repertoire for instance, the indication of a multiphonic using only a chord is very ambiguous and hard to interpret for the performer. On the other hand, notating the key-work (fingering) of the Oboe which is the performer’s preferable way of showing multiphonics is often incomprehensible or unknown for most composers. Since a great number of works are increasingly using multiphonics, this phenomenon has become a significant part of extended technique and an integral part of modern repertoire. It is crucial to develop the notation system in a manner which meets both the complexities of the composer’s requirements while at the same time being practical for the performer. This article aims to challenge common and standard multiphonic notation systems, with regards to oboe repertoire and young Iranian composers who may be less familiar with practical and realistic approaches; attempting to write multiphonics merely based on theoretical knowledge without direct collaboration with the performer. Study, analysis and comparison of various multiphonic notation systems as well as evaluation of the possibilities shows that acoustical analysis results from identical multiphonics are not always similar, thus creating multiphonics with exact pitches is almost impossible. This concluded, the best method of multiphonic notation is the fingering system along with inscription of different pitch contents in the music score’s appendix. Since many multiphonic notation systems are innovative and less documented in a categorized manner to aid young musicians in performing, this article classifies multiphonics and their symbols based on certain combination of fingerings, lip position, air pressure, and embouchure in the context of oboe performance techniques, thus aiming to present a “standardized” notation system for composers to refer to when using this extended technique for oboe repertoire.