عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this paper is first to compare Platonic and Aristotelian view on imitation which is reflected in cinematography and film . Secondly, in this article we examine the possibility of elaborating a philosophy or a theory of film with regards to Plato`s and that of Aristotle`s writings on aesthetics. Our method of research is that of analysis and description. In the ancient world and also among philosophers essentially of ancient Greece, what today is called fine arts or performing arts in particular, imitation or representation, surely artistic production was based upon proclaimed frameworks seemingly agreed upon by the great philosophers. Cinema can be considered as an art of imitation. It, too, resembles literature because of its narrative structure, and painting because of its representative structure. However, it is similar to theater, by its dramatic nature. In this paper, we examine the views of Plato and Aristotle. Plato in politic dialog talks about scales for acceptance or rejecting imitation art in his Kalipolice. In order to better understand the explanations about Plato’s ideas in this dialog, one can use Sophist and Timaos dialog. Basic reference for conscience of Aristotle’s thoughts about art and imitation art is Butiqua which analyses and evaluates epic and especially tragedy. In Aristotle’s book without any direct inference to fantasy and its function in creating artwork, he says that there is no way except using fantasy in order to reach imitation better than reality. When Plato and Aristotle talk about structuring art they are working on the nature of imitating, they don’t want to copy or reference exactly with reality. Desirability for Aristotle, is searching for representation such that it is better than reality and it is reached by function of fantasy. Plato wants to represent fact of objectivity. One of the innovative aspects of this survey is correlation of Plato’s and Aristotle’s thoughts about perception of the spectators. While Plato clams that knowledge is necessary for making art work, Aristotle searches the notion of the intelligent spectator. Other innovating aspects of this research is that from Aristotle’s thoughts about fantasy. He proclaimed that it should have a relation with reality and art works should use facts as well as fantasy since fantasy helps art works to reflect better than pure reality. Also in regards to Aristotle’s views on comedy, it isn’t lower imitation of drama. In fact it is an augmentation of sorts giving an acquired viewpoint of reality. We believe Plato’s aesthetics offers not only a value for evaluating film productions, but also a definition of perspective, reality, fantasy and most importantly, imitation of what one perceives to be reality. We can define the character of a kind of cinema agreed by Plato and Aristotle through their writings and comparison of cinema. In the ancient world and also among philosophers essentially of ancient Greece, what today is called fine arts or performing arts in particular, imitation or representation, surely artistic production was based upon an understood framework and point of aesthetic discourse.