تأثیرات مکتب منهایم بر دو سونات پیانویی K. 309 و K.311 اثر موتزارت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه موسیقی، دانشکده هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد رشته نوازندگی موسیقی جهانی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران،

چکیده

دو سونات پیانویی موتزارت K. 309 و K. 311 متعلق به دوران اقامت وی در منهایم هستند. در مکاتبات میان موتزارت و خانواده‌اش، به تأثیرپذیری سونات K. 309 از سبک منهایم اشاره شده و تأثیر این سبک بر K.311 نیز در منابع ثانویه مورد تأیید موتزارت شناسان از جمله رابرت لوین و جان ایروینگ قرار گرفته است. در مقاله‌ی حاضر سعی شده تا این تأثیرات از چند منظر متفاوت بررسی شود؛ از جمله: کنتراست‌های دینامیکی و خلق فضاهای ارکسترال، شناخت و تحلیل فیگورهای متداول مکتب منهایم که در این دو اثر به کار رفته‌اند (فیگورهای منهایم راکت، اونیسون، فیگور آه، ترمولو در فواصل اکتاو یا ششم و هفتم)، فرم و ساختار و اهمیت ویرتئوزیته. روش تحقیق مروری-کاربردی بر پایه جمع‌آوری مستندات تاریخی و استناد به آرای متخصصین در منابع ثانویه است. در ادامه به بررسی و تحلیل متن ویرایش نشده‌ی دو اثر و مقایسه‌ی آنها با آثار آهنگسازان مهم مکتب منهایم پرداخته شده (نظیر یوهان شتامیتز و کریستین کانابیش که موتزات در طول اقامت در منهایم با وی در ارتباط مستقیم بوده است) و مثال‌هایی از سمفونی‌های این آهنگسازان و هم‌چنین مثال‌هایی از خود آهنگساز در آثار همین دوران یا پس از آن برای درک بهتر مطالب اضافه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Influences of Mannheim School on Mozart’s Piano Sonatas K. 309 and K. 311

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Pakbaz 1
  • Hasti Ebrahimi Yegane 2
1 Assistant Professor, School of Performing Arts and Music, Collage of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Master of Music, Faculty of Music, University of Art, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Two of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s piano sonatas reflect the virtuosic standards of the Mannheim School during his residence in that city in 1777. Acknowledged as one of the most important music centers and schools in Europe, its orchestra and individual players were re-known throughout the continent. In letters to his family, including December 8th and 11th 1777, Mozart distinctly mentioned that piano sonata K. 309 was inspired by the Mannheim School. As for sonata K. 311, although there is no reference to it directly in the letters, prominent Mozart researchers such as Robert Levin and John Irving have confirmed influences of Mannheim School with this sonata as well. The present article, through identification and analysis of these influences of major Mannheim composers and use of secondary literature correlates Mozart’s sonatas to this famous school. These influences are studied from different perspectives: the first one is related to imitation of orchestral qualities and dynamic shadings reflected in these two compositions. The second aspect the identification of specific figures of Mannheim applied in these two compositions. Shortly before Mozart’s journey to Mannheim, he had been acquainted with Stein’s fortepiano and observed its extraordinary capabilities for performing a wider range of dynamics and tone colors. Having the experience of playing Stein’s instrument and also observing Mannheim Orchestra closely in which dynamic contrasts and masterful performance of crescendos were among its characteristics, Mozart was encouraged even more to reflect these orchestral qualities in his piano sonatas and to utilize dynamic variations and contrasts similar to those of Mannheim. In this article, each movement is studied separately and for comparison and better understanding of this influence. Examples of illustrious Mannheim composers including Christian Cannabich with whom Mozart has been in touch during this time and Johann Stamitz are included. Distinct musical figures and gestures are introduced in the order of importance. For example, the first discussed figure is the “Mannheim Rocket” which consists of a quick ascending arpeggio which is mostly used at the beginning of Mannheim symphonies. This figure might be used with unison accompaniment. Another important figure is the “sigh figure.”  This is introduced due to its historical significance. It is a motif which has been used since Baroque and is applied very often in Mannheim compositions. Furthermore, examples of applying tremolos in both compositions are mentioned which are performed frequently by Mannheim Orchestra. Finally, form and structure are discussed. The first movement in sonata K. 311 is the only movement that has the form of sonata among all Mozart’s piano sonatas in which reverse recapitulation is applied- (the position of first and second subjects are reversed). This type of sonata has been very common among composers of Mannheim School. The next point is the virtuosic aspects of the two compositions. Both pieces are among difficult compositions of Mozart and demands special technical skills. Mannheim Orchestra consisted of virtuoso musicians and its progress was mainly related to its professional musicians. This encouraged composers to take virtuosic capabilities of each instrument into account.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mozart’s Piano Sonatas
  • Mannheim School
  • Christian Cannabich
  • Johann Stamitz
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