نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه موسیقی، دانشکده هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران
2 کارشناس ارشد رشته نوازندگی موسیقی جهانی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران،
عنوان مقاله [English]
Two of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s piano sonatas reflect the virtuosic standards of the Mannheim School during his residence in that city in 1777. Acknowledged as one of the most important music centers and schools in Europe, its orchestra and individual players were re-known throughout the continent. In letters to his family, including December 8th and 11th 1777, Mozart distinctly mentioned that piano sonata K. 309 was inspired by the Mannheim School. As for sonata K. 311, although there is no reference to it directly in the letters, prominent Mozart researchers such as Robert Levin and John Irving have confirmed influences of Mannheim School with this sonata as well. The present article, through identification and analysis of these influences of major Mannheim composers and use of secondary literature correlates Mozart’s sonatas to this famous school. These influences are studied from different perspectives: the first one is related to imitation of orchestral qualities and dynamic shadings reflected in these two compositions. The second aspect the identification of specific figures of Mannheim applied in these two compositions. Shortly before Mozart’s journey to Mannheim, he had been acquainted with Stein’s fortepiano and observed its extraordinary capabilities for performing a wider range of dynamics and tone colors. Having the experience of playing Stein’s instrument and also observing Mannheim Orchestra closely in which dynamic contrasts and masterful performance of crescendos were among its characteristics, Mozart was encouraged even more to reflect these orchestral qualities in his piano sonatas and to utilize dynamic variations and contrasts similar to those of Mannheim. In this article, each movement is studied separately and for comparison and better understanding of this influence. Examples of illustrious Mannheim composers including Christian Cannabich with whom Mozart has been in touch during this time and Johann Stamitz are included. Distinct musical figures and gestures are introduced in the order of importance. For example, the first discussed figure is the “Mannheim Rocket” which consists of a quick ascending arpeggio which is mostly used at the beginning of Mannheim symphonies. This figure might be used with unison accompaniment. Another important figure is the “sigh figure.” This is introduced due to its historical significance. It is a motif which has been used since Baroque and is applied very often in Mannheim compositions. Furthermore, examples of applying tremolos in both compositions are mentioned which are performed frequently by Mannheim Orchestra. Finally, form and structure are discussed. The first movement in sonata K. 311 is the only movement that has the form of sonata among all Mozart’s piano sonatas in which reverse recapitulation is applied- (the position of first and second subjects are reversed). This type of sonata has been very common among composers of Mannheim School. The next point is the virtuosic aspects of the two compositions. Both pieces are among difficult compositions of Mozart and demands special technical skills. Mannheim Orchestra consisted of virtuoso musicians and its progress was mainly related to its professional musicians. This encouraged composers to take virtuosic capabilities of each instrument into account.