بررسی تم خداوند در قطعه‌های اول و آخر مجموعۀ بیست نگاه اثر الیویه مسیان از دو منظر هارمونی و ریتم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار آهنگسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس‌ارشد آهنگسازی، دانشکدة موسیقی، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تجزیه‌وتحلیل دو اثر از آثار الیویه مسیان، یکی از آهنگسازان بزرگ و نامی قرن بیستم، موضوع این پژوهش است، چراکه نه‌تنها مسیان به دلیل کار‌هایش، بلکه به دلیل افکار موسیقایی‌اش که همچون قطعاتش مستند شده، همواره مورد توجه پژوهشگران عرصة موسیقی بوده است. دلیل دیگری که ذهن نویسندگان را به قطعة اول از مجموعة بیست نگاه الیویه مسیان معطوف کرد، شباهت ریتمی این قطعه و برخی پرلود‌های یوهان سباستین باخ است. بخش اول این پژوهش، بعضی تفکرات موسیقایی او اعم از برخی مد‌های انتقال محدود و آکورد‌های متنوع را پوشش می‌دهد. بخش دوم به بررسی قطعة اول با نام نگاه پدر از مجموعة بیست نگاه مسیان از دو منظر هارمونی و ریتم می‌پردازد. بخش سوم در‌بر‌گیرندة تجزیه‌وتحلیل قطعة آخر با نام نگاه کلیسای عشق از همان مجموعه و از همین دو منظر است. بررسی این دو قطعه از الیویه مسیان نشان می‌دهد که وی چگونه از برخی تفکرات آهنگسازی‌اش اعم از تفکرات هارمونیکی و ریتمی به صورت عملی بهره برده است. در این پژوهش از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی با بهره‌گیری از منابع موجود در کتابخانه‌ها و فضای مجازی استفاده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rhythmic and Harmonic Analysis of the First and the Last Piece of Vingt Regardes Collection by Olivier Messeain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Honarmand 1
  • Yassaman Behbahani 2
1 Assistant Professor of Composition, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Master of Composition, Faculty of Music, University of Art, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

As rational human beings, we always think and look back upon our predecessors and forefathers, how they have lived and what they have accomplished, in order to learn from their experiences and broaden our horizons. There is no doubt that Olivier Messiaen is one of the most influential composers of the 20th century, because of his unique musical approach, language and style. Thus, Western modern music is to no small extent indebted to him. The first part of this research deals with Olivier Messiaen’s life and some of his musical thoughts and ideas such modes of limited transposition, special chords, added notes, and the rhythm. The prominent modes of limited transpositions include whole-tone, octatonic and enneatonic modes, which are appealing to Messiaen. The special chords include the chord of dominant, resonance and the chord in fourths that are unique to him. The latter chord, however, is somewhat similar to mystic chord of Scriabin in using perfect and augmented fourths. The rhythmic theories include added values, augmentation and diminution, as well as non-retrogradable rhythms. The added values could be short notes, rests or dots which are used to obscure the rhythmic flow. Messiaen’s interest in the charm of impossibilities and limits found in modes of limited transposition is also evident in his extensive use of prime numbers in the rhythmic figures. In combination with added values, these rhythmic units create a more or less a metrical music which is frequent in Messiaen’s works. In the second and third parts of the article, the first and last pieces of Vingt Regards collection for piano are analyzed. These movements called Regard du Pere and Regard de l’Eglise d’amour share a triad-based idea called the God’s theme. The study focuses on harmonic and rhythmic elements, both of which feature unique aspects as well as dependence on the past. For instance, while the prominent three-note figure features a prime number which Messiaen was fond of, it could be a symbol of Christian Trinity that is also used extensively in Bach’s music. One can also see additive and subtractive rhythmic process in some parts of the last piece. From harmonic point of view, Messiaen’s principles of added notes are found throughout the pieces in form of added semitones, tritones, and sixths. Furthermore, several variations of the chord in fourths are used in Regard de l’Eglise d’amour. Some of these variations feature note displacements to change the sonority and density of the harmonies, while others include omissions to create lighter chords. Analysis of these two pieces illustrates how Olivier Messiaen has applied some of his compositional thoughts and ideas in a piece of music, in a very practical and contemplative way. There is a world of difference after all, between theoretical learning of musical intricacies and techniques, and seeing them applied and used in a work of music, masterfully and meticulously as Olivier Messiaen has done; not forgetting and overlooking that many of these techniques have arisen from his own musical mind.   

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Olivier Messiaen
  • Regard de l’Eglise d’amour
  • Regard du Pere
  • Vingt Regards
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Bang, Bo Kristal (1944). Music of Messiaen: Catholic Christianity, available online athttp://www.moragacleanxpress.com/keysoundart/articles/Music%20of%20Messiaen%20Catholic%20Christianity%20or%20Cultic%20Contradiction.html (accessed on June 2014).

 

Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

 

 

 

Messiaen, Olivier (1944). Technique De Mon Langage Musical, Translated by John Satterfield, ALPHONSE LEDUC, Paris.

 

Taylor, Christopher (2008). Vingt Regards surl’Enfant-Jésus, available online athttp://www.ljms.org/Performances-and-Tickets/Program-Notes/Christopher-Taylor-12.12.08.html (accessed on June 2014).

 

Van Den Toorn, Pieter C. (1987). Confronting Stravinsky: Man, Musician and Modernist. Ed. By JannPasler, University of California Press.

 

Van Der Walt, Salome (2007). Rhythmic Techniques in a Selection of Olivier Messiaen’s Piano Works, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, pp. 5 & 9.