هستی، زمان و سینما بررسی تأثیر هانری برگسون بر فلسفۀ سینمایی ژیل دلوز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه فلسفه، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی، قزوین، ایران

2 دانش‌آموختة دورة کارشناسی‌ارشد رشتة فلسفه، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی، قزوین، ایران

چکیده

ژیل دلوز در فلسفۀ سینمایی خود عمیقاً وامدار تفکر برگسون و مفاهیمی چون دیرند و خیرخواست حیاتی است. اما، آنچه توسل دلوز به برگسون را مسئله‌برانگیز می‌کند، مخالفت آشکار برگسون با سینماست. به باور او، سینما حرکت را که جریانی پیوسته است در عکس‌هایی منقطع و غیرواقعی جعل می‌کند. برگسون این شکل از بازسازی حرکت را به دلیل ایجاد ادراک کاذب، «توهم سینماتوگرافیک» می‌خواند و آن را به برداشت کمّی از حرکت/زمان نسبت می‌دهد. با این‌ همه، بخش زیادی از تلاش دلوز صرف اثبات این مسئله می‌شود که فلسفۀ برگسون نه‌تنها مخالفتی با سینما ندارد، بلکه حتی در جهت هستی‌شناسی سینماست. در این مقاله با استناد به منابع معتبر و به شیوة تحلیلی، قابلیت‌های سینمایی فلسفۀ برگسون و تفاسیر دلوزی آن را بررسی و تلاش می‌کنیم تا نسبت تفکر برگسون و سینما را از خلال دیدگاه دلوز تشریح کنیم و نشان دهیم که چگونه اصول تفکر برگسونی توانست راه را برای فلسفۀ سینمایی دلوز هموار سازد. هدف این پژوهش، هم بیان تفسیری نو از برگسون و شرح چگونگی کاربرد مفاهیم وی در کتاب‌های سینمایی دلوز است و هم نشان‌دادن اینکه اساساً سینما چگونه از بنیاد با زمان/ حرکت و جهان/ فلسفه گره خورده است و با ایدۀ جهان به‌مثابة دیرند پیوندی ناگسستنی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Being, Time and Cinema A Study of the Philosophy of Henri Bergson on Gilles Deleuze's Philosophy of Cinema

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Fath Taheri 1
  • Mehrdad Parsa 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Imam Khomeini International University, Ghazvin, Iran
2 MA in Philosophy, Imam Khomeini International University, Ghazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

In addition to his revolutionary philosophy and his fundamental criticism on psychoanalysis to which he owes his fame, Gilles Deleuze, the great philosopher, devotes an important part of his thought to formulating the ontology of cinematic image and hence turned out to be known as the only philosopher of cinema. Thanks to the multiple classifications of images and creating philosophical concepts for cinema, Deleuze in his two cinematic books namely Cinema 1. movement-image and Cinema, 2. time-image reshapes the relation between the world and cinematic eye and therefore turns his works to something more than mere cinematic books through focusing on the category of time and movement. The first book deals with the issue of movement and explores the works that provides an understanding of movement-image. The second book speaks about the issue of time and shows that modern cinema can provide an understanding of time-image. In addition, in these works, he deals with diverse conceptions such as montage, decoupage, shot and … and argues that we should understand these concepts in terms of philosophy, and then he compares them with mechanisms of the world and human perception. It can be said that Deleuze tries to eliminate the gap between cinema and thought, on the one hand, and cinematic world and real world on the other hand. This brings his cinematic approach to the extent that recognizes cinema and image as immanent in the world and being. At the end of the second book, he states the question of “what is cinema?”can be replaced by the question of “what is philosophy?”, because cinema is a function of images and symbols which it's theory of philosophy should be developed as conceptual practice and action and that no areas including semiotics or psychoanalysis has adequate competence to create concepts that are specific to cinema. For Deleuze, cinema as a pure form of thought is different from other arts. In fact, cinema possesses autonomy and special features that give to it a privileged position. The singular idea of cinema obtains through creating images and hence, does not need something else. In the matter of time, Deleuze follows Henri Bergson who believes that time is not quantitative phenomenon but a qualitative one that during its contractions and expansions, encompasses the whole world. This makes Deleuze's approach as meditations about essence of life and world. Therefore, although Deleuze is indebted an important part of his philosophy to the thinkers such as Nietzsche and Spinoza, in argument about cinema, Bergson is the only influential and lasting thinker on his work. Using Bergson's concepts like duree, elan vital and … Deleuze considers cinema as a field of immediate manifestation of movement and time which exceeds or go beyond  a mere aesthetic art. In this study, by explaining Deleuze's interpretation of Bergson's concepts attempt is made to reveal the profound impact of Bergson on Deleuze's cinematic ontology despite his outspoken opposition with cinema. Explaining Deleuze's interpretations of Bergson, we finally demonstrate how Deleuze through Bergson, regards cinematic perception as the only perception of the world.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Duree
  • Gilles Deleuze
  • Henri Bergson
  • Movement-Image
  • Time-Image
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