تحلیل نحوه بازنمایی نوازنده عود در تصاویر دوره ساسانی تا صفوی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکز

2 استادیار دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکز

چکیده

چکیده
تحلیل ساختارگرایانه 40 تصویر منقش به ساز عود از دوره ساسانی تا صفوی بر اساس روابط میان فیگور «کانونی» و «غیر کانونی» در نظام نشانه­شناسانه متن تصاویر، مبنای مقاله حاضر قرار گرفته است. نتایج پژوهش، بیانگر چهار نظام بازنمایی در ارتباط میان نوازنده عود و فیگور کانونی می باشد. در الگوی اول که تعداد بیشتری از تصاویر را در بر می­گیرد، نوازنده عود در طرفین و معمولاً سمت چپ تصویر قرار دارد و شاه به عنوان فیگور کانونی و قطب، فرادست نوازنده تصویر شده است. در الگوی دوم، عناصر نمادین نظیر پرنده یا جایگاه خالی شاه جایگزین فیگور کانونی شده است. به نظر می­رسد با توجه به مناقشاتی که در مورد موسیقی در دوره اسلامی وجود داشته است، نمونه­های دو الگوی  اخیر که به طور عمده به دوره اسلامی مربوط می­شوند، نشانگر جایگاه فرعی و حاشیه­ای نوازنده عود در مناسبات طبقاتی اجتماع است. در سومین الگو، نوازنده در موقعیت فیگور کانونی قرار گرفته و در الگوی چهارم، همسان با سایر کنش­گران، تصویر شده است. مطالعه حاضر، دوره ساسانی را به عنوان گروهی با بیشترین تنوع در بازنمایی نوازنده عود معرفی می نماید. اما با نزدیک شدن به دوره صفوی، ازتنوع الگوها کاسته شده و در نهایت الگوی اول غالب می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the representation of ood player in the Images of Sasani to Safavi*

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mryam Dolati Fard 1
  • Fateme Shahroodi 2
1 M.A. in Art Research, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch, Tehran
2 Assistant Professor, Art and Architecture Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
This article tries to have a look at 40 images which shows ood player in Sasani to Safavi periods. These images can be considered as documents for more information about ood instrument. Permanent elements in these images are the base of the analysis in this research. Two types of figures were being considered as permanent elements: basic figure and non basic figure. In this research basic figure means an element or a person in an image which is superior to the other figures and can be recognized by visual signs and symbols such as composition, size, position, the direction of the other figure’s looks toward it. Sometimes a text or poem which the image is about can help us to find out basic figures. Basic figure can be a human, mythological creature, tree, bird, throne or building. Non basic figure is in a lower status than basic figure. In this article, more often ood player is as a non basic figure. This research shows four kinds of patterns representing of ood player in the images. Most of the images belong to the first pattern in which king is basic figure and superior to ood player as a non basic figure. Most of the time ood player is represented in the left corner of the scene but in a few images it is shown in the right corner. In second pattern a non human element replaced to king as basic figure. As the third pattern, ood player is represented as the basic figure showing his individuality. In a better word there is an overlapping between basic and non basic figures. In the last kind of patterns ood player is shown beside to the other figure in equal status. In fact there is no superiority between them. This study introduces sasani’s patterns as a group having the most variety in. we have all four types of patterns in this periods. But reviewing the images from safavi to sasani we see that gradually first pattern is being dominant. It means ood player is shown as non basic figure. There are tree images belonged to the third category. The first one is related to sasani period. The second one is related to Islamic period but obviously under the influence of Sasani’s artistic traditions and the last one is belonged to Safavi’s art. Although we know that ood players were respected in Sasani period but this research cannot able to interpret the third pattern as the superiority of ood player in Sasanian social classes because of the lack of enough images from this period. But in the images of Islamic period we see the individuality of ood player is not emphasized. There had been some discussion about music in Islam so the first and the second patterns can be an indication of lower status of ood player in the society.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Ood Instrument
  • Ood Instrument and Ood Player in Images
  • Analysis of Basic and Non Basic Figure
  • Images of Sasani to Safavi