اصول زیبایی ‌شناسی در نوازندگی موتزارت، با نگاهی بر کنسرتو فلوت در ر ماژور K.314

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار دانشکده هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

چکیده
در این مقاله اصول زیبایى شناسی دوران کلاسیک از دریچه موسیقى موتزارت بررسى مى شود.  علاوه بر مطالعة تطبیقى رسالات کهن موسیقى کلاسیک، این مقاله با بررسى کتب معاصر در زمینه سبک شناسی و اجرا و با استفاده از تجربیات چندین ساله نوازندگى و مطالعات در حوزه آموزش نوازندگى و اجراى دوره، چارچوبى را براى معرفى معیارهاى تفسیر در نوازندگى موتزارت ترسیم مى کند. در این راستا، نکات مهمی که به شناخت قطعات این دوره کمک مى کند معرفى مى شوند تا نوازندگان معیارهایى را براى تفسیر قطعات درنظر گیرند. در آغاز، مقاله به معرفى زوایاى خلاق در آهنگسازى موتزارت که تحت تاَثیر فضاى فرهنگى هنرى او شکل گرفته مى پردازد و سپس، با توجه به تاُکید زیاد بر همپایى فن سخنوری با نوازندگى در دوران کلاسیک، آن دسته از پارامترهای موسیقی راکه بر درک ساختارهاى دستورى و نحوى قطعات نقش ایفا مى کنند معرفى مى کند و پیشنهاد دارد که نوازندگان علاوه بر درک ظرافت­هاى ساختارى هر قطعه و تشخیص روابط فرمال قطعات، لازم است تکنیک­هاى فن بیان در موسیقى همچون تنوع تاکیدها، آرتیکولاسیون و سونوریته را مطابق با معیارهاى هنرى هر دوره مد نظر قرار دهند و به فصاحت و شیوایى در اجراى قطعات دست یابند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Aesthetic Considerations in Performing the Works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the Case of the Concerto for Flute and Orchestra in D Major K.314

نویسنده [English]

  • Azin Movahed
Associate Professor, School of Performing Arts and Music, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

The present article aims to address the basic principles of interpretation in the music of the Classical era by drawing upon issues of aesthetics and performance practice in the works of W.A. Mozart. A comparative review of the classic treatises, as well as a thorough survey of the writings of contemporary authors on performance practice, and personal experience as a flautist, has guided the author to introduce a model for the interpretation of the music of Mozart. Important elements that play a key role in understanding the stylistic traits of the Classical period, as well as practical issues that need to be addressed in connection with the preparation and execution of a historically informed performance are introduced in an attempt to allow performers gain a better understanding of the language of Mozart. Considering the emphasis given to the close relationship between rhetoric and musical performance during the Classical period, musical parameters that provide a better understanding of the grammatical structure of compositions are discussed in an attempt to stimulate students to consider not only the formal and structural aspects of a piece but to contemplate on issues pertinent to the expressive layers of performance, issues such as the diversity of accents, meaningful articulation, and appropriate sonority and touch. These parameters are important aspects in allowing performers reach a transparent and meaningful execution on their instruments. Drawing upon historical, analytical and stylistic trends, it is crucial for professional performers and students to combine all theoretical data in order to make a well grounded interpretation. Searching elements that affected the original conceptions of Mozart, the influence of Empfindsamerstil can not be neglected during the Rococo. Mozartian phrases exemplify contrast through juxtaposing distinct but complementary affects in the phrase. Contrasts exist not only among the different themes of a composition but also within the same theme. The development of the Mannheim school and orchestra encouraged composers to also take into consideration the virtuosic capabilities of instruments and instrumentalists along other principles. Virtuosic phrases that require steady technique, endurance, and vigor are an emblem of Mozartian aesthetics. Combined with the growing weight of tonality during this period, virtuosic passages always emphasize tonal and harmonic motion. By studying the ways and means in which a stylish interpretation can be established, and to use them as historical foundations for artistic decisions, performers have to understand and make a distinction between metric, structural, and pathetic accents. Mozartian melodies can not be significantly expressed unless the performer considers the integrated relationship between melodic inflection, articulation and accents in the interpretation of melodies. While structural and pathetic accents are influenced by the rhetorical/grammatical structure of the piece, it is important for meter not to be mistaken for pulse. Thus, appropriate accentuation is a critical skill in the performance of Mozart because it generates pulse, and pulse should be sufficiently emphasized because it creates motion in performance