درآمدی بر اقتصاد تئاتر در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیارگروه نمایش، دانشکده سینما-تئاتر، دانشگاه هنر، تهران

چکیده

چکیده
در این مقاله، با نگاةکلی به اقتصاد هنر و با در نظرگرفتن اصول و دیدگاه­های اقتصادی و فرهنگی حاکم بر جامعه امروز ایران، رابطه اقتصاد وتولید تئاتر مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. اگر به تئاتر به عنوان یک محصول فرهنگی بنگریم که از ساز و کارهای مختلف تولید تا اجرا برخوردار است و مانند هر کالای دیگری قابلیت مصرف شدن دارد، بطوری که بخشی از نیازهای انسانی ما را تامین می­کند، می­باید همانند هر کالای دیگری به توازن میانه هزینه ها ودرآمدهای ناشی از آن توجه کنیم. زیرا تئاتر همچون سایر کالاها تابع سه عنصر اقتصادی تولید، توزیع و مصرف است. در نگرش توسعه­ای، تئاتر یک "کالای در خور" محسوب می­شود و دولت مایل است که مردم بیش از آنچه در جامعه دیده می­شود، مصرف کننده آن باشند. لیکن علیرغم این تمایل، وجود عوامل بازدارنده سهم اندک تئاتر از بودجه های فرهنگی را سبب گردیده است. مقاله حاضر روشن می­سازد که با توجه به سیاست های فرهنگی و نظام تولید تئاتر در ایران، وضعیت کنونی تئاتر نامطلوب بوده و سهم تئاتر در سبد مصرف خانواده ایرانی  و نیز سهم تئاتر در برنامه های توسعه و اقتصاد ملی و جایگاه این تولید هنری در عرصه فرهنگ  و هنر به لحاظ کمی و کیفی رو به کاهش است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Introduction to the Economy of Theater in Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamid Reza Afshar
Assistant Professor, Art University of Tehran, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
This paper takes an overall look at the economy of arts and studies the relation between economy and the production of theater by considering the economic and cultural principles and approaches governing today’s society of Iran. The main objective of this study is to study the adverse conditions of Iranian theater and the inferior status of this cultural product in Iran. In scientific terms, economy is the budget or capital, which is converted to products for consumption purposes. Product is something that both meets the needs of people, and can be exchanged with other products. Therefore, any product has two properties: 1- It meets the needs of people. 2-It is produced and distributed for exchange purposes. If theater is considered as a cultural product that has different mechanisms from its production to performance and can be consumed like any other product to meet a part of human’s needs, we must pay enough attention to create a balance between its costs and incomes just like any other product, since theater is subject to three economic elements of production, distribution, and consumption. Theater is considered a valuable product in development terms. The government is interested that people consume such a product more than what is consumed in practice. Despite such an interest, there are barriers that reduce the share of theater in cultural budgets in such a way that the status of theater in the finance system and cultural budgets of Iran has lowered to its minimum, and the support and facilities provided to theater is less than the half of those granted to other arts. These barriers can be classified as follows: - Unquantifiable nature of art has made it difficult in general to use quantitative criteria and measuring tools for its recognition. Such a problem makes it also difficult to provide the statistic data and indices that are required for the economic evaluation of an artistic work. - The theater artists and experts have no strong will and interest to generate such indices. As the economics of art as a branch of economics that evaluates and analyzes the tangible results of artistic policies, plans, and activities has not a broad background, the studies conducted in this field are limited and speak in general terms. Moreover, they fail to provide a clear perspective on practical and theoretical solutions. This research shows that theater in Iran has a small share in the households’ consumption baskets and plays an insignificant role in the national economic and development plans. Therefore, it can be concluded that theater has an inferior status in Iran, and such a status in artistic production and culture is undermining quantitatively and qualitatively. If theater is considered and employed as a profitable and entrepreneur institute in the cultural society and its economic aspects are studied for taking more upturn, the methods of promoting investments and directing proper financial resources are revealed and the most important obstacles to the upturn of theater are removed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Economy
  • Theater
  • Production
  • Distribution
  • Consumption